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The core part of the water heater is an inner tank, which directly affects the safety performance, service performance and service life of the water heater. When selecting a heater, users should pay attention to the material, thickness, welding process, enamel glaze quality, coating and sintering process of the inner liner of the water heater.
An anode rod is often placed inside a water heater to protect the bladder. This anode bar is usually a magnesium rod because magnesium is the least toxic metal in the electrochemical sequence and is physically non-toxic. Therefore, it is ideal to make a magnesium rod protection liner. The size of the magnesium bar is directly related to the length of the liner and the size of the protection effect. The bigger the magnesium rod, the better the protection effect and the longer the protection time.

But magnesium rod size is relatively large, and the service life is short, generally speaking, the electric water heater magnesium rod must be replaced every two years, but some manufacturing level difference products not up to the design life, corrosion fast and even less than a year consumed, short service life, frequent replacement, use the cost increase is many disadvantages of magnesium rod anticorrosion technology.

Shaanxi noble metal oxide coated titanium anode, laidre production of small volume, light weight, and deodorant, titanium anode wire and water heater composed of a water heater in tap water for conducting medium loop. When the current through the electrode, tap water in Cl- as the anode of the metal oxide coated titanium anode movement near the anode enrichment, as near the water heater cathode, the concentration of Cl- will greatly reduce the corrosion rate, slow water heater, water heater can greatly prolong the service life.
So far, data regarding mechanical properties of AM manufactured Ti parts are not readily available, although not completely non-existent. This is a result of the burgeoning nature of the technology. An analogy can be drawn to the 1980s, when composite materials were introduced in the aerospace industry. There was a fundamental lack of qualification data in the public domain and each company basically needed to define and conduct its own qualification process.

In general, metals are known to be isotropic materials with basically consistent mechanical properties in all three directions. (Of course there are exceptions, like in materials with preferential grain directions).

However, due to the unique manufacturing process of AM parts, these articles are considered highly anisotropic. As a result, and similar to composite materials, properties must be established in all three directions, as shown in the image.

Currently, 3D manufactured parts cannot match the mechanical performance of conventionally manufactured counterparts. However, this will change over time as very much effort is being done in order to rectify this. Additionally, there is ongoing research for metals that are specifically designed for powder and AM production.

In case you are interested in available data and test results regarding AM produced Ti, please contact Airborne Metals.
Titanium non-machining / 9 Volt Battery & Coca Cola Titanium Anodizer
« Last post by Tiarticle on 28 August 2017, 13:33:55 »
After blowing the circuit breaker and fusing a dimmer coil with a bridge rectifier at 130v DC, it was time to start small — one 9v battery at a time.

I’ve been wanting to anodize titanium and use the laser to create masks for the different colors. Translucent oxides form on titanium with heat or voltage. (I also tried lasering colors into niobium, which oxidizes similarly to titanium, but didn’t find the color band with the CO2 beam — just grey/black.) With both niobium and titanium, each volt corresponds to a thickness of oxide and refraction of a color. If you start at the highest voltage and work your way down to the lowest voltage for the colors you choose, theoretically, you can strip off the protective tape mask after each color is obtained and the thicker oxides (higher voltages) will be unaffected by lower voltage oxide layers. In essence, when anodizing with a tape mask, you are using a reductive method of printmaking like linoleum block printing, only the ink is an oxide layer.

How it works – DC voltage is applied to the surface of the titanium/niobium with a sponge clipped into an electrode. The ideal electrolyte to complete the circuit is phosphoric acid, so you wet the sponge with cola, or a solution of TSP, Cafiza, or Miracle-Gro. Two factors determine the oxide layer thickness: Voltage and time. If you vary the speed of your sponge with the electrolyte across the titanium, you’ll get a variety of colors due to incomplete oxidation at and below that voltage. It’s also possible to make a gradient by starting slowly and speeding up as you sponge across the metal.

The image above shows voltage swatches from 1v to 140v. (Most of the swatches haven’t been oxidized yet.) The little squares were cut with the laser into clear packing tape and peeled off for their specific voltage. The first yellow swatch was easy — one 9v battery. As the batteries were chained in series, the voltage was read (some were weaker) and the corresponding swatch was oxidized. 99v (12 batteries) is a beautiful green that I will definitely use again. The red at 18v is also noteworthy. When the new rectifier arrives, I’ll fill in the in-between voltages on the swatch sheet. It’s really liberating to be able to anodize without a $500+ commercial anodizer.

A little background on my motivation: I have a daily project that continually challenges my creativity and craftsmanship. NYC Resistor is the perfect environment to explore a variety of mediums, processes, and ideas. I’m partial to the laser. It puts the rapid in rapid prototyping. Join us for Craft Night one Thursday evening and come away with inspiration for your creative idea.

Writing: Herb
At present, the world's consumption of titanium dioxide in the rutile type accounted for 75 to 80%, anatase only 20 to 25%. Since the same belongs to the titanium dioxide series of these two kinds of titanium dioxide What is the difference?
1) Internal structure crystal
Rutile titanium dioxide crystal structure is stabilityer than Antase grade
2) Melting point and boiling point
As the anatase in high temperature will be converted into rutile type, so the anatase titanium dioxide melting point and boiling point is actually not present. Rutile Titanium dioxide has a melting point of 1850 ° C,The boiling point of rutile titanium dioxide is (3200 ± 300) ℃,
3) Dielectric constant
Due to the high dielectric constant of titanium dioxide, it has excellent electrical properties. In determining the physical properties of titanium dioxide, the crystallization direction of titanium dioxide crystals is taken into account. The dielectric constant of anatase titanium dioxide is relatively low, only 48%
4) Conductivity
Titanium dioxide has a semiconductor performance, its conductivity increases with the temperature and rapid increase, but also very sensitive to hypoxia. The dielectric constant and semiconducting properties of rutile titanium dioxide are very important to the electronics industry and can be used to produce electronic components such as ceramic capacitors.
5) Hardness
According to Mohs hardness of the system scale, rutile titanium dioxide for the 6 to 6.5, anatase titanium dioxide 5.5 to 6.0, so in the chemical fiber extinction in order to avoid wear and tear hole and the use of anatase.
6) Production methods
Although rutile and anatase sulfuric acid production process is basically similar, but the specific parameters there is a big difference. Anatase products are mostly produced using sulfuric acid, but rutile products are now sulfuric acid and chlorinated two.
7) Coating
Anatase products in the basic calcined settlement, after Raymond grinding broken packaging sales, and rutile products in order to better improve its dispersion, weather and other characteristics, after calcination using alumina or zirconium for surface treatment, help with the same also There is a part of the organic processing.
8 ) Price
It is not difficult to see through the production method, the cost of rutile titanium dioxide than the anatase high, the price is naturally high, the current situation, rutile titanium dioxide price about anteropium titanium powder higher than the 3000-4000 yuan per ton The
In addition, the antase grade of titanium dioxide is better than the whiteness, but the color strength is only 70% rutile tio2, in the weather resistance to join the anatase grade titanium dioxide test piece only after a year after the start of cracking or debris peeling, and adding rutile grade titanium dioxide After a decade, its appearance is only a small change. As the R-type titanium dioxide coloring and weatherability is better, plastic coloring using R-type titanium dioxide as well.

Writing: David He

The Stealth Key hides its security features inside, thereby making it virtually impossible to copy.

The idea that you might surreptitiously snap a photo of someone’s house key and build a duplicate from it to break into their home sounds like a James Bond plot twist. So too does a 3D-printed titanium solution, which hides its security features inside — thereby rendering it unscannable.

In fact, the so-called Stealth Key is the creation of Swiss company UrbanAlps, which figured out a way to use additive manufacturing to make keys that keep their teeth concealed from view. The result is an alternative to regular, run-of-the-mill keys that can be easily scanned and copied.

“It is made using 3D-metal printing, or more precisely selective laser melting,” company co-founder Alejandro Ojeda told Digital Trends. “Thanks to this approach, we can make complex internal structures that are hidden, to block 3D-scanning of the mechanical code. It is a very simple approach, but one of the most effective ones. If such keys were to be produced using traditional manufacturing it would be impossible or at least very expensive. However, thanks to 3D-metal printing it’s cost effective. Each single key printed is different, even in batches of 850 at the same time.”

“It represents a disruption, both product-wise and manufacturing-wise,” he said.

Ojeda said he started working on the Stealth Key following work in the research and development department of a gas turbine company, where he used 3D-metal printing to invent new turbine parts with increased internal complexity. He then left the company to do a Ph.D. in lasers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology before turning his attention to the idea of developing an unbreakable key.

“The first proof-of-concept was rather bulky, but it worked and we have made amazing progress since then,” he continued. “The real challenge is not so much designing the key, but the cylinder to read the key internals. Reliability is one of the main reasons why mechanical cylinders are still dominant — with 90 percent of market share — despite the existence of electronic locks. People take mechanical cylinders for granted, but these genius mechanisms work for 20 to 30 years without a single fault — something electronic systems cannot provide. And there is no battery to change, either.”

Costing around $200, a pair of Stealth Keys and a cylinder lock mechanism is not the cheapest option out there, although it is not dissimilar in price to other high-security systems boasting high-grade cylinders. But if there is one thing it is worth splurging on, it is the peace of mind that comes with knowing that your home is safe.

After all, you never know when a Swiss mastermind with a Ph.D. in lasers and a portable 3D scanner will want to try and break in!

Writing: Luke Dormehl
Titanium powders pose some challenges when it comes to safety hazards. These challenges have to be dealt with in an adequate manner in order to ensure a safe working environment.

First, the material is flammable. Flammability refers to the fact that the material will burn in air if ignited. Extreme caution must be exercised to prevent any type of fire or explosion.

Additionally, the material is sensitive to electrostatic charges. This sensitivity is at a level that can be generated from normal operator or warehouse activities.

The third concern is inhalation risk. Like any metal powder, titanium can be deleterious to one’s health if ingested.

As a result, precautionary measures must be in place when handling the material. These include (but are not limited to):

Use of conductive flooring and footwear, personnel-grounding devices and anti-static clothing.

Powder should be stored in closed containers and these should be protected from physical damage.

Heat & spark generating processes like welding and grinding cannot be performed around Ti powder.

A safe perimeter around equipment and powder must be maintained.

Ti fires cannot be sprayed with water. Special extinguishing media exist and should be used instead.
The medical industry is developing new technology to augment the global spinal implants market.

Today’s innovations for treating spinal deformities cater to issues including spinal stenosis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. In addition, with the introduction of minimal invasive surgery and advancements in spinal fusion, implants are boosting the global spinal device market. A report by Allied Market Research shows that the global spinal implants market was worth $9,941 million in 2015 and is set to grow to $13,384 million by 2022, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.6% is from 2015 to 2022.

UK sees ray of hope for chronic spinal spondylosis
Lower back pain is a common issue that may come as a creeping predator for people with an inactive regime. Keeping the muscles in the lower back stationary for a long time may spurt intolerable back aches. The weak muscles cannot support the spine any longer from underuse. However, lower back ache complaints in the U.K. plague nearly one in ten patients. There are certain new innovations that are on the rise to fix this issue.

Sharon Palmer, a middle-aged woman from Essex was writhing in agony when Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans detected an issue of chronic spondylosis – spinal discs get brittle, bones rub together which then pinch the nerve, causing constant pain. She was administered physiotherapy and steroid injections but none offered a permanent solution. Barts Health NHS Trust in London came up with a device known as ReActiva8. This battery-powered pacemaker-type implant is known to send electrical impulses and exercise the muscles for 30 minutes twice a day. Placed in the center of the lower back along the spine and in the buttock below the bikini line, this device is an alternative to surgery that comes with a risk of nerve injury.

The doctors at the NHS have been taking part in the international ReActiva8 trials and have seen a considerable success rate. Doctors claimed that out of 46 patients, 63% had significant improvements in pain. Doctors are hoping to perform multiple experiments before rolling out their latest device in the market.

In situ graft delivery
A novel method to fill biological void left by traditional spinal implants
Pinnacle Spine Group LLC has come up with a technology known as the in situ graft delivery technology. Recently granted a U.S. patent, this approach involves delivering bone graft material in situ onto an implanted device that will fill the biological void – a technique designed to replace the traditional approach of interbody fusion system.

Initially, researchers noticed that there was a certain biological void between an implant and its adjacent vertebrae. Pinnacle Spine’s InFill Fusion Systems includes various interbody fusion devices engineered for simple insertion methods and reduced subsidence through maximum contact with the apophyseal ring. The method also includes a generous bone grafting area and is compatible with the InFill graft delivery system. The technology is based on controlled and astute in-situ placement of bone graft material directly into the implanted device to establish maximum contact with the adjacent vertebral endplates.

3D printed
Spinal implant could be one of its kind in the market
Medical device company K2M recently got clearance from the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its 3D printed MOJAVE spinal implant. The 3D printed implant can be used to fix spinal defects; it will be placed in the posterior-lumbar area of the spine and can be expanded or retracted as necessary.

The cage has been created using K2M’s Lamellar 3D titanium technology, a powder-based laser melting approach to metal 3D printing. K2M introduced material features conducive to the bone growth using this technology.

Todays Medical Developments
Titanium products / Yes, that's a lump of metal in my purse.
« Last post by Tiarticle on 9 August 2017, 08:55:32 »
You read that correctly. I carry a bar of titanium in my handbag. I don't live in a dodgy neighborhood (anymore) but certainly the place I work in is a little, ahem, industrial, and therefore, anything that can be used as a weapon (strictly for self-defense!!) is helpful, especially when walking to and from the car alone.

I'm sad to report that I don't have mad kung-fu skills unlike my cousin @Lauren Yeung, but I have watched my fair share of UFC fights so I think I could take on any would-be assassins with a vicious arm-bar. Most fights usually end up on the ground, so some grappling skills would probably help.

I should explain where the piece of titanium in the picture above came from. When I obtained my US citizenship, I was given a plastic flagholder with a Union Jack, to remind me of where I came from. However I had also been handed a teeny star spangled banner so I asked my technician to punch a hole into the plastic so I could hold both flags simultaneously. He came back an hour later with a turned and polished Ti-6Al-4V bar end, with two holes drilled to hold my flags. I've treasured this lump of metal as a symbol of friendship between my two countries but also admired its beauty and simplicity. Of course we know that titanium is half the density of steel with the same strength so what that means is if I swing my purse at a would-be attacker, the metal in my bag will still make a BIG DENT in their face! In other words, it becomes easy for me to swing my bag like a lethal weapon but they are going to FEEL REAL PAIN! Titanium really is the best metal ever!

Writing: Eliana Fu
In the aerospace industry, currently the following AM technologies are widely used:

Laser based technologies

AM technologies employing a laser as the heat source to fuse particles together are known as SLS (Selective Laser Sintering), SLM (Selective Laser Melting) and DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering).

As the names suggest, SLS achieves sintering (heating of the material to near-melting temperatures to fuse particles by diffusion) while SLM achieves full melting. DMLS is a further development of SLS using a more powerful laser and refers to the process as applied to metal alloys.

SLM essentially does the same as sintering but goes one step further by achieving a full melt, thus obtaining a homogeneous part with fewer or no voids (helping preventing failure). However, the technology is feasible only with single metals powders.

In all cases, a 3D CAD file is used to model the part to be produced. The actual building process is quite time-consuming and therefore, as of now it is primarily suited for smaller series. DMLS is faster due to the more powerful laser. In practice, it might be possible to build multiple parts simultaneously, depending on part size and machine capabilities.

The manufacturing principle is shown below (next page). The powder feedstock is applied to a powder bed that moves upward. Using a roller, the material is then applied to the fabrication powder bed that moves downward as the part builds up. Layer thickness is usually measured in micrometers and excess powder is being retrieved for recycling. The computer-controlled laser beam then fuses the particles together. 

The aerospace industry aside, these technologies are also pioneered in medical orthopedics.

Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

EBM employs an electron beam as the energy source. It is fundamentally different from the laser based technologies. EBM achieves full melting.

In contrast to the laser based technologies, the part is constructed under vacuum. This makes it a suitable technology for titanium, since the metal has a high affinity for oxygen which may lead to unfavorable characteristics of the end product. Moreover, titanium powder is highly combustible (as discussed below) and the inert environment helps to significantly reduce the risk of explosion / fire.

This process typically uses pre-alloyed material. The energy density is higher than with SLS, resulting in a higher build rate.

High quality, dense parts without porosity can be produced. This may eliminate the need for post process sintering.

The working principle of the technology is shown here.
Titanium machining / What's the Right Tool For Milling Titanium?
« Last post by Tiarticle on 5 August 2017, 12:47:31 »
Milling titanium is like milling other hard-to-machine metals in that a small increase in cutting speed can lead to a big increase in edge wear.

Milling titanium is different from other metals because of the risk of heat build-up. Thanks to the metal’s low thermal conductivity, overly aggressive milling may even pose a risk of combustion. With titanium, in other words, there may be more than one reason why the cutting speed can’t be increased.

And yet the speed of production still can be increased. A shop milling titanium can raise its metal removal rate even while the cutting speed stays constant. Accomplishing this does not have to involve a more powerful or higher-end machine tool, but it does require tooling that can take advantage of the power of the existing machine. It also requires tooling that can compensate for any shortcomings the machine may have when it comes to rigidity.

One company that has studied titanium milling is cutting tool supplier Kennametal. And one advisor in this company who has consulted on many titanium milling applications is Brian Hoefler, product manager for milling. The below shown is based on his experience and recommendations.

Why is milling titanium worth the attention? There are at least two reasons. First, the material is used for high-end parts—not just components used in an aircraft’s frame and engine, but also medical parts, for example. Shops able to thrive in the United States increasingly will migrate toward higher-end work, meaning that a growing percentage of U.S. shops will encounter this material.Second, broader reason for covering titanium milling relates to the procedures for machining effectively when the material is difficult to cut or the available speed is low. Not every shop has access to high spindle speeds and feed rates. What do you do to achieve higher productivity when raising the cutting speed is not option?

1.Weigh Wear Resistance Against Toughness

The fundamental choice of cutting tool material should be the first consideration, Mr. Hoefler says. Carbide might be the right choice. But shops are often so accustomed to viewing carbide as the superior cutting tool material that they routinely choose it for all difficult jobs. With titanium, newer generation high speed steel can be the better alternative.

The wear resistance that allows carbide to reach a high cutting speed comes at a price. That price is paid in “bulk toughness,” or the ability of the tool to resist fracturing and chipping. Carbide in general is more brittle than high speed steel.This is significant in titanium milling, because it is generally not edge wear that causes the tool to fail in this material. Rather, it’s chipping or breakage that leads to failure. In addition, heat build-up may make it impossible to take advantage of the cutting speed that carbide makes available.

These two factors both suggest that the trade-off in toughness may not be worth making. A tougher tool—a high speed steel tool, that is—can take a deeper cut without fear that shocks will cause the edges to chip. Particularly on a less rigid machine tool, this more forgiving tool material can let the shop realize a higher metal removal rate through depth of cut instead of through speed.

But even this material presents a range of choices. Too few shops realize that there is more than one kind of high speed steel. While commodity high speed steel tools are made through a process that involves heat treatment, the alternative—powder metallurgy tooling—can be manufactured so that the steel has a more uniform structure with more closely controlled properties. Powder metallurgy tools are more expensive, but they generally offer better performance.

2.Heat Resistance

Sometimes carbide is needed. Low-radial-immersion cuts, for example, can allow a surprisingly high speed (see shaded box titled "10 Percent Radial Depth? Double The Speed" above). In cuts such as these, it’s not just wear resistance but wear resistance at high temperatures that’s important. That requirement suggests a coated carbide tool.

Mr. Hoefler says titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) coated carbide is usually the best choice for machining titanium. Out of the handful of basic cutting tool coating types, TiAlN is clearly the best at maintaining its integrity and properties as the temperature in the cut gets hot. In fact, heat actually drives this coating’s protection. Aluminum that is liberated from the coating through the energy of machining helps to form a protective layer of aluminum oxide. This layer reduces both thermal transfer and chemical diffusion between the tool and the workpiece. Coatings coming soon add even more aluminum to encourage this reaction.

When TiAlN is not the right choice, the reason why relates to vibration. Titanium carbo-nitride (TiCN) is a stronger coating that offers better resistance to micro-chipping. “When you’re using an indexable insert, and you’re taking a heavier cut on a less rigid machine, try TiCN—this may be the better choice,” Mr. Hoefler says.

3.Number of Effective Edges

Even when the speed, the chip load and the depths of cut are all fixed, productivity can still be improved. To raise the metal removal rate, increase the number of effective edges.

On a helical mill, for example, choose the tool with the finest pitch possible. (A corncob tool may also work.) Counting edges in this way creates one more reason to consider high speed steel, because high speed steel generally can offer more cutting edges than a comparable tool that uses carbide.

Another way to achieve a higher number of effective edges is to take milling in a different direction. Through “plunge roughing,” a shell mill, or another suitable milling tool, is fed into the work along the Z axis as if it were a drill. The parallel plunges are programmed to overlap, so the cutter is never completely surrounded by material and the chips have room to escape.

This approach can only be used for roughing, because the adjacent passes leave scallops between them that have to be milled away later. But because plunge roughing engages a larger number of the tool’s cutting edges, the feed rate in inches per minute can be increased while the chip load remains constant. Feeding in Z also takes advantage of the machine’s stiffness, because the various connections along the spindle that would tend to deflect along X or Y (such as the toolholder interface) are compressed in the Z direction. Along Z, the machine is more rigid. That means it may be possible even to increase the chip load.

Mr. Hoefler says, “Plunge roughing can be a very productive approach to material removal in high-strength metals. I don’t think enough shops today are taking advantage of this.”

4.Vibration Elimination

Potential for deflection is also important because of another, more serious problem—chatter. Where chatter is concerned, milling titanium seems to offer the worst of both worlds. On the one hand, high forces are involved, making significant chatter more likely. On the other hand, high spindle speeds generally are not involved, making it impossible to find some “sweet spot” rpm value that can tune the chatter away.

Chatter, in fact, will decide the productivity of most titanium milling applications. The maximum achievable metal removal rate will occur not at the point where the horsepower is maxed out, but at the point where significant chatter begins. That’s why it’s important to construct the process so that it impedes chatter as much as possible. Mr. Hoefler suggests any and all of these considerations:

A. Stiffness. The interface between the tool and the toolholder, and the interface between the toolholder and the spindle, both need to be made as stiff as possible. For the tool interface, shrink fit offers a solution. For the spindle, an HSK interface can offer better stiffness than a conventional conical taper.

B. Damping. A tool with an eccentric relief, or a “margin,” can offer process damping that wards off chatter. When the tool deflects, this eccentric relief comes in contact with the workpiece and rubs. Not all materials take well to the rubbing; aluminum tends to adhere. But in titanium, the margin can make for an effective shock absorber.

C. Variable cutting edge spacing. This is an approach to tool design and chatter prevention that many shops may be unfamiliar with. Chatter results from the oscillation caused by the cutting edges hitting the work with a regular frequency. Some milling cutters useunequally spaced flutes to disrupt this regularity. Two cutting edges may be 72 degrees apart, while the distance to the next is 68 degrees and the distance to the edge after that is 75 degrees. The irregular spacing aims to avoid chatter by preventing a steady frequency from taking hold. Another option, patented by Kennametal, exploits a varying axial rake angle to achieve a similar vibration-disturbing effect.

Life is a long way to learn more.Waiting for more advises for the right tool of Milling Titanium.Lol...Thanks

Writing: Windy Yang
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